A definition can be applied that Cast Iron is an
alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon is in
excess of the amount that can be retained in solid
solution in austenite at the eutectic temperature.
Carbon is usually present in the range of 1.8% to
4.5%, in addition, silicon, manganese, sulphur and
phosphorus are contained in varying amounts.
Various types of cast iron are covered by a British
Standard classification and includes grey, malleable
and white irons. Elements such as nickel,
chromium, molybdenum, vanadium can be added to
produce alloy cast irons.